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MATRIKA workshop transcriptions

Rajasthan workshop 1 I Rajasthan workshop 2 I Rajasthan workshop 3 I Punjab workshop I Delhi workshop 1 I Delhi workshop 2 I Bihar workshop 1 I Bihar workshop 2  I Songs Rajasthan I Songs Bihar I Songs Delhi I Songs Punjab I Songs Patna I Socio-economic Bihar I Socio-economic Fategarh I Socio-economic Jehangirpuri I Glossary





Rajasthan workshop 1     Rajasthan workshop 2      Rajasthan workshop 3  


   
Punjab workshop




Delhi workshop 1     Delhi workshop 2




Bihar workshop 1     Bihar workshop 2 



Songs Rajasthan    Songs Bihar     Songs Delhi     Songs Patna



 

Glossary Of Hindi, Kotha, Marwari And Punjabi Words

Explanatory Note

Ten workshops were conducted with dais, at four sites: 3 workshops were in Bihar, 3 in Rajasthan, 5 in Delhi and 1 in Punjab. In order to access the richness and depth of the dais’ knowledge and culture, we encouraged speech and expression in the local languages. This made the process of workshop planning, facilitation, and documentation rather more complex and intricate.

In Rajasthan, the dais at the workshop site spoke Marwari. In Bihar, at the workshop site, Kotha was the dais’ language. In Punjab, Punjabi was spoken. In Delhi, Hindi was the common language, although some sharing in other languages did take place, since the dais at the Delhi workshops come originally from diverse parts of India (including Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh). Our MATRIKA team included one Marwari-speaker, that is Madhu. Both Madhu and Renuka were also able to follow Kotha. We had no Punjabi-speaker amongst us.

The NGO community health workers whom we collaborated with in each area were provided orientation in preparation for each workshop – regarding themes as well as processes. MATRIKA also requested support on facilitation, translation and documentation when required. The NGOs were forthcoming on this. MATRIKA team members handled the basic facilitation and documentation during the workshops and afterwards. The documentation during workshops was intense – both simultaneous notes/reportage, as well as audio recording were undertaken throughout nearly all workshop sessions. Based on these recordings, MATRIKA personnel made extensive exhaustive Workshop Reports of each workshop (referred to as R1, R2, R3, B1, B2, B3, D1, D2, D3 and P1 respectively). These Workshop Reports were first prepared in Hindi and then translated into English, for all the areas except Punjab. The Punjab Workshop Report was prepared directly in English, by translation from various Punjabi notes (made by three different persons) as well as Punjabi audio recording of the entire workshop.

During the elaborate and delicate process of translation from local languages into, finally, English, we have tried to retain the spirit and sense of the original. A number of critical terms and phrases have been rendered in the original, since we felt that translation of these would lead to too much loss of the original flavour and nuance.

The glossary has been prepared in order to facilitate English-speakers, and to a certain extent Hindi to access those terms which have been presented, in the text, in the source languages.

The four languages in which the material has come to us share common roots. There is significant overlap between the languages, particularly between Hindi, Kotha and Marwari. Many a term is found in more than one of these languages, perhaps with altered accentuation on emphases. Therefore it is not possible to prepare a watertight categorisation. In fact, we would say that the overlaps across languages boundaries reflect and indicate overlaps in cultural meanings and material practices, across the sites of the study.

We have also attempted brief definitions of terms reflecting the cosmological understandings of the Dais and the communities which they serve. These terms (e.g. chudail, dayan, Bemata, narak naadi, nas, soo, gandagi) are renderings within a complex, holistic and sometimes paradoxical worldview. As such, simple, definitive and encompassing definitions are virtually impossible. We have, however, provided our empathetic understandings of the meanings of these words to the best of our abilities.

Bihar

Bihar Workshop 1
aag diya (H) Giving hot fomentation.
Adivasis (H) Indigenous tribes.
Amavasya (H) No-moon night, dark night.
arandi ka tel (K) Castor oil
basti (H) Covers settlements as diverse as say, Khamra Basti near Gomia village to Jehangirpuri in Delhi, a neighbourhood.
bhang (H) Sedative.
Chamain (H) Woman of the Chamar caste, Dai.
chuchi (H) Breast, Nipple.
Dagri (H) Another name for the Dai.
Dayan (H) A witch or woman with supernatural powers; a female practitioner of magic, thus feared. But also sometimes, particularly in Bihar, refers to a female Deity who may bless or withhold from her worshippers - nurturing and beneficent as well as cursing and malevolent aspects.
Dayan Puja (H) Worship of dayan, takes place on Aamavasya or no moon night. Equivalent to Lakshmi Puja
jajman (H) Patron. Jajmani is a semi feudal relationship where craftspeople, labourers, Dais, etc. work for upper-caste families in a village, or a group of villages.
Jamai (H) Son in law, husband of the
kanva (K) A measure of weight in Bihar—equals 125 grams.
Kuan Puja (H) Worship of the well, performed by the mother, accompanied by family and neighbouring women, 40-45 days after the birth.
mailua (K) A black fruit.
makka (H) Corn.
Ojha (H) Shaman, medicine man.
paila (K) A weight measure in the area around Gomia. One paila is equal to 14 kanvas, where 1 kanva is equal to 125 grams, therefore one paila is approximately 1.75 kilos.
pallu (H) Cloth at the end of the sari
panphoda (H) Amniotic sac. Literally, boil or swelling filled with water.
pipar (H) A herb/ spice used in the preparation of a nutritious sweet dish for lactating mothers.
Pitar (H) Ancestors (male).
resha (H) A pregnant woman comes into contact with another, who has just had a baby, and her pains begin. Can happen also with menstruation. Bodily state altered by presence.
ropni (K) Weeding
Sahayogini (H) Health workers at the Mahila
Samdhin milan (H) The in laws meet. Part of the Chhati ceremony in Bihar.
Shodhini (H) A project documenting indigenous women healers, and herbal knowledge, in several Indian states.
Sohar (H) Women’s songs, sung after childbirth.
tel chhoaana (H) The father of the newborn pours out oil and gives it to the Dai, when she shows him the newly born child. Literally, being touched with oil.
Bihar Workshop 2
besan ki sabzi (H) A curry made of gram flour.
burr (K) Vagina.
Chamar (H) A low caste, considered untouchable and ritually impure, traditionally leather workers by occupation..
chana (H) Clitoris, literally gram seed.
Chhati Bharna (H). The ritual of giving gifts during the Chhati ceremony.
Chhati (H) The sixth day after birth, when the new mother and baby emerge from room where the birth has taken place and where they have been secluded. Also rituals, which mark this day.
chholey (H) Grams
Dhamin nag (H) Female snake, capable of flight.
fundi (K) Breast
ghunti (H) Concoction given to babies.
Gotni (H) Husband’s brother’s wife.
hazri (H) Construction work. Literally, attendance.
Jitya (H) A fast kept by women for the well being of their sons.
kujur (K) An oil drunk by pregnant women, and women in labour, among the Munda tribals, supposedly as effective as a tetanus shot.
kurthi dal (K) A kind of lentil popular with Santhal tribals.
lota (H) A tumbler of metal.
Muru (K) Among the Munda tribals, if a woman conceives a second time without menstruating after the birth of her previous child, the second child will be considered a Muru child—conceived out of “dirty” blood.
naek (K) Gifting at childbirth given from mother’s family to father’s family members
Narak kund (H) Often refers to the placenta and bag of waters or afterbirth. Kund means spring - fed lake pond having no visible inlets or outlets (sometimes translated as stagnant - which is not correct.) Interestingly the physiological functioning of the placenta mirrors that of the placenta.
nau mahine ka narak kund (H) Nine months narak kund or after birth. The by-products of the nine months of gestation
Pitiyan Saas (K) Husband’s aunt.
potlis (H) Tiny cloth bags of medicinal herbs, sometimes inserted in the vagina.
puni (K) A disease wherein a baby crosses his/her legs while being fed, thus never gaining weight or getting strong.
purdah (H) Curtain or veil.
Sahayogini (H) Health workers at the Mahila Jagriti Kendra. Women working for the government sponsored Mahila Samakhya program are called Sahayoginis, or helpers.
samooh (H) Group.
Santhali (H) A tribal group.
teet tor denge (K) Will break your clitoris (an abuse)
teetni (K) Clitoris
than (K) Breast. For animals, udder.
yoni (H) Vagina
Bihar Workshop 3
adhnar (H) See gola.
Adhnar ka Dard(H) Postpartum pain
amarlata (H) This shrub is used the way latlatiya is used—if the birthing woman’s pains do not increase, the Dai circles these shrubs/herbs over the woman’s body, head to toe, five times, and puts them under her pillow. As soon as the birth takes place, these shrubs are removed, else (the Dais believe) the woman could get prolonged bleeding or a prolapsed uterus.
borsi (H) Embers
Jar (H) Roots
jiv (H) Life force
khuddi (H) Broken rice
kokh lajayegi (H) (The birthing woman will) feel ashamed of her womb, her womb will feel ashamed (if her mother is with her when she gives birth)
maar-saag (H) Starch-green leafy vegetables

 

Delhi
Delhi Workshop 1
aage ka sharir (H) Vagina, literally, the front part of the body.
aata (H) Wheat flour.
Apni Rasoi (H) An Action India program in Delhi where basti women are encouraged to use traditional home remedies. One’s Own Kitchen.
Bahimata (H) She who keeps a record, writes destinies—related to Bemata
Baniya (H) Merchant.
Banjaran (H) Gypsy woman, woman of the Banjaran caste.
basti (H) Covers settlements as diverse as say, Khamra Basti near Gomia village to Jehangirpuri in Delhi, a neighbourhood.
Bemata (H) Is a powerful Creatrix invoked at the time of childbirth, with some variation in names, throughout North India. The special deity of dais and parturient women, she lives under ground and creates beings out of earth - breathing life into in to them. She writes the destinies of newborns, shortly after their birth. Bemata is immanent in all nature, grows and protects the baby in the womb, but is responsible for problems if she does not ‘exit’ the mother’s body via post partum bleeding.
chandia (H) Baby’s head, as it begins to emerge from the mother’s body. “Crowning”.
chhaati (H) Breast
chuchi (H) Breast, Nipple.
daar (H) Waist
Dom (H) A lower caste.
doob (H) A kind of grass.
dudi (H) Navel
gaar (H) Anus
Gangi Jamuni (H) Blood clots, which come out postpartum.
Gau Mata/Gau Maa (H) Cow as a deity, goddess of plenty. Literally, Cow Mother.
gola (H) Womb
Guni (H) People with knowledge of herbs, indigenous healers.
Gurus (H) Learned people, teachers
Hal halo Mata (H) Goddess symbolising the plough, or agriculture. Literally, Plough Mother.
koolha (H) Hips
Kuan Puja (H) Worship of the well, performed by the mother, accompanied by family and neighbouring women, 40-45 days after the birth.
marora (H) Womb. A term used in Andhra Pradesh.
mori (H) Vagina
oat ki nal (H) Fallopian tube
oati (H) Womb
peru (H) Area behind the womb
Sabla Sangh (H) Community-based women’s group, one of Action India’s activities. Literally, Sabla means woman of strength, and Sangh means union.
sudhi (H) Navel
Delhi Workshop 2
Aushadhi Ayurvedic term for substance used for therapeutic purpose (food, herb, water, etc)
bawasir (H) Piles
Bemata dhundhti hai (H) Bemata is searching for the baby. Term for postpartum contractions
charhi hui nasen (H) Channels that have got pulled
chhat(H) Womb. Literally, roof.
chilamchi (H) Round utensil used for washing.
dard charh raha hota hai (H) The pains are increasing or rising.
Gand (H) Literally dirt but meaning afterbirth.
garbhashay (H) Womb.
gole kaa dard (H) Gola pains.
harira (?) Food given in postpartum period.
karotwani (H) Rolled up piece of cloth.
kharai (H) Placenta
khoon jam jaaye (H) Blood clots, the blood is not flowing.
latrin ki jagah (H) Rectum. Literally the place for shitting.
lohe ke kante (H) Forceps. Literally, forks of iron.
maila khoon chhoot jata (H) The dirty blood would have come out.
piliya (H) Jaundice
praan nikal jata hai (H) One’s life ebbs away.
rakhwala (H) Protector.
rerhi (H) Stall
Saey palat jati hai (H) The cord has changed
Soo palat jati hai (H) The kind of uncleanness has changed.
tatti ka rasta (H) Rectum. Literally, the way for shitting.
tel ka ghera (H) Oiling the vagina in a circular motion.
thuddi (H) Jaw and chin
yoni dwar(H) Birth passage
Zameen apna seena pharkar anaj ugati hai (H) The earth tears its heart open to bring forth grain.

 

Punjab

Punajb Workshop 1

aate ka halwa (H) A sweet dish, made with wheat, clarified butter, water and sugar.
agar anval charh jaye to zahar charh jata hai (H) If the placenta climbs up the mother’s body then poison would spread through her body.
ajwain (H) Bishop’s weed, omum
Amrit (P) Holy water. Literally nectar.
anval (H) Placenta
bacha dani (H) Womb. Literally baby vessel or baby holder.
bache dani da muh (P) Mouth of the womb
Bemata (H) Is a powerful Creatrix invoked at the time of childbirth, with some variation in names, throughout North India. The special deity of dais and parturient women, she lives under ground and creates beings out of earth - breathing life into in to them. She writes the destinies of newborns, shortly after their birth. Bemata is immanent in all nature, grows and protects the baby in the womb, but is responsible for problems if she does not ‘exit’ the mother’s body via post partum bleeding.
bhatre (H) Migrant groups who live by begging, in Punjab.
cham le lende hain (P) Almost rip the skin off one’s body.
charpai (H) Cot or bed frame, made of wood and rope.
chauka (H) Kitchen
Chauke Charhna (P) A ritual performed on the 13th day after the birth when the baby and the mother are introduced to people outside the family, and the mother is allowed to step outside the room in which she gave birth. Literally, entering the kitchen.
chawani (P) Mixture of gur (jaggery) and ajwain, given to women immediately after childbirth.
chhota operation (H) Episiotomy. The surgical procedure to enlarge the birth canal. Literally, small operation.
chhuhara (H) Dried dates.
chudail (H) The ghost of a woman who dies while pregnant, in labour or postpartum. She has her hands and feet on backwards and comes back, searching for her child.
chunni (H) A piece of fine cloth, used to cover the chest, shoulders and head and conceal the face if necessary.
dana chawal (H) Fodder.
dangar (P) Animals, cattle.
Dharti Maa tu hamara yeh sab gandh sambhal lay(H) Earth Mother, please absorb the dirt we have generated (refers to the placenta, blood, etc. which is buried in the earth after labour)
fudi (P) Passage through which the baby comes out
Ganga Jal (H) Ganges water
garmaish (H) Providing heat, or heat inducing foods, to a woman in labour.
hava na lage (H) Let the person (mother or baby) not be exposed to wind.
heeng (H) Asafoetida
kacha dard (H) The early labour pains. Literally, soft or uncooked/raw pains.
kala chana (H) Black gram
karha (H) Concentrated herb syrup.
karta te Rab he, par haath mere han (P) God is the Doer, but it is through my hands (that a child is born.)
khanda (P) Dagger, used to stir Amrit.
Kuan Puja (H) Worship of the well, performed by the mother, accompanied by family and neighbouring women, 40-45 days after the birth.
latrin naal jaane (P) Passage for stool, rectum.
loha (H) Iron.
lohe ka bata (P) Iron bowl.
Lohri (H) Punjabi festival, marking the end of winter.
man te tan sanjha kar liya (P) Bringing mind and body together—integration.
Mazhabi (H) Lower caste Sikhs. The women from these castes work as Dais.
munnakka (H) Sultanas, dry fruit.
naal (P)/nala (H)/nara (R) Umbilical cord, literally tube or channel
narwa (H) Umbilical cord.
Nu (P) Daughter in law
paagal (H) Mad, crazy, insane.
Paanch vani ka paath (P) Religious singing, literally in five voices.
pani ki thaili (H) Amniotic sac, bag of waters.
patisa (P) A sweet dish—mixture of besan (gram flour) and stringy syrup.
pehla pani jiyo hai, jith harya sab koy (P) The first to live is water, which makes all things become green and alive.
Pir (H) A holy man, a Muslim Sufi saint.
puttha, chutharya par (P) Breech baby, literally, upside down, born buttocks first.
rakhi (H) A young boy from the family who is asked to stay with the new mother till the celebration of the Chauka Charhna ceremony.
Ravidas (H) Lower caste Sikhs.
Sachhey Badshah (P) God, literally, the “True Emperor”
saugi (H) Raisins.
shareer (H) Vagina, also body.
suthak (P) Amniotic sac
Teeka/tika (H) Vaccination.
tehrawa (H) The 13th day after birth.
thanda (H) With reference to food. A basic characteristic or nature of some foods.
upar charhh jata hai (H) It climbs up (said of a retained placenta)

 

Rajasthan
Rajasthan Workshop 1
aalti paalti (H) Cross legged position..
aankh (H) A kind of tree.
aanth (H) Blockage/ blocks.
aara Transverse or cross-lying position of the baby
aath kaath hota hai (H) An eighth month baby is like dried up wood, therefore, born prematurely, does not survive.
ajwain (H) Bishop’s weed, omum
angithi (H) Coal or charcoal brazier
ausar (H) Magical rituals.
baalsaad (H) Baby’s first cry.
bacha peechhe hota hai (H) The baby is towards the back side.
bacha phas gaya (H) The baby got stuck (in the pelvis).
bache ka rakshak voh gola hota hai (H) The gola protects the child before its birth.
bache ko chumate hain (H)/bache ko chubhate hain (H) In Rajasthan these phrases are used for mothers first breast feeding under the stars. Chumate/chubhate literally means kiss.
bache ko dunga latkate hain (H) The baby is swung upside down (if there is no cry or movement).
bael badhni hai (H) More children to be born, the lineage must continue. “If the vine is to grow..”
Bagyasi Puja (M) Puja performed in the seventh month of pregnancy, for the well-being of mother and child.
bahatar naadi (H) Seventy-two channels. Umbilical cord.
baja (H) Musical instrument.
bajra (H) Millet.
Bemata (H) Is a powerful Creatrix invoked at the time of childbirth, with some variation in names, throughout North India. The special deity of dais and parturient women, she lives under ground and creates beings out of earth - breathing life into in to them. She writes the destinies of newborns, shortly after their birth. Bemata is immanent in all nature, grows and protects the baby in the womb, but is responsible for problems if she does not ‘exit’ the mother’s body via post partum bleeding.
bhojpath (H) A herb, used in dhuni or to give smoke to the vagina, in cases of vaginal itching.
bhosari (M) A term of abuse. Literally, vagina.
bitani (H) Nipple.
boba (M) Breast
boba lagwa dete hain (M) The baby is put to the breast.
Chanaj Chowk: (H) Perhaps a bazaar. A chowk is where four roads meet.
chanwari (M) Ritual drawing, done in the shape of a horoscope, for a naming ceremony.
cheena (M) Vagina
chhaachh (H) Curd, thinned with water, served either with sugar, or salt and spices.
chhaanle (H) Sieve.
chhattis naadi (H) Placenta. Literally, thirty-six channels.
chitte (M) Difficult deliveries with mild labour pains.
choot (M) Vagina, used as an abuse.
chopa (H) A wet paste applied to wounds.
chunni (H) A piece of fine cloth, used to cover the chest, shoulders and head and conceal the face if necessary.
churawan (M) Another word for churail, a woman who dies in childbearing.
churi (H) Bangles.
churma (M) Sweet dish made of roti, which is crushed and mixed with ghee to form laddoos.
Dai mai vaid kasai (H) The Dai is said to be like these three—a mother, an Ayurvedic physician, and a butcher.
Dakaut (H) A woman who is offered grain and oil in case the baby has poor Shani Mangal (Saturn-Mars) alignment in the horoscope.
desu (M) Amniotic sac
desu dhal gaya (M) The amniotic sac has burst.
dhok (H) Obeisance
Disawar (M) Going to far off town to work.
dora (M) Ritual for taking away negativity, especially after the death of a young woman.
dosh (H) Fault or transgression.
Dunga (R) Buttocks
Foons (H) Hay
funsi (H) Rashes
gaanth (H) Knot
Gandagi (R) Bad blood
garuth (H) Cow urine.
ghugari (M) A dish made with soaked wheat or pulses.
giga (M) Child
gigalo (M) Boy child
gola (H) Pain caused by involution of the womb. (contractions)
gola parna (H) Suffering from painful diarrhoea. (also contractions)
goli tikri (H) Pills and tablets.
gudari (H) Quilt made of old clothes.
holariyo (M) Boy child
jacha ka shareer baithate hain (H) Gently pressing the womb/vagina back into the woman’s body. Literally, setting the woman’s vagina back in place.
jalwa (H) Function or occasion.
jalwa puja (M) Well worship by the new mother, takes place 45 days after the birth of the baby.
jama hua khoon (H) Thickened, coagulated, collected blood.
jantar (H) Magic, prayers.
japa ghar (H) Room in which deliveries take place.
japas (H). Births, deliveries.
jhilli (H) Membrane, remnant of the amniotic sac.
Jhoomar (H) Dance performed by women.
Joshiji (H) The priest
kaasa thaali (H) Plate made of a mixed metal.
karhai (H) A deep utensil used for frying.
kasooliya (M) False pain.
keel (H) Cholestrom—first milk.
khejari (H) Tree, growing commonly in Rajasthan.
kokh (H) Womb.
kudrat ki den (H) Gift of Nature.
kund (H). Spring fed pond
lapasi (H/M) A sweet dish made with wheat, sugar and ghee.
laung (H) Clove
laung (H) Nose ornament.
loi (H) Wet mixture of flour, turmeric powder and ghee.
mangal nakshatra (H) Manglik?
Meghwal (H) Lower caste. Dais belong to this caste.
mehndi (H) Henna
methi (H) Fenugreek.
mitti (H) Sand, mud.
moonj (M) Coconut husk.
munda Up side down
naal (P)/nala (H)/nara (R) Umbilical cord, literally tube or channel
naar chanak gayi (H) Channels are pulled.
nau mahine ka narak nikalta hai (H) Nine months narak kund or after birth. The by-products of the nine months of gestation finally comes out.
Nayak (H) A lower caste, to which Dais belong.
pagan (M). Walk
Pagawani Legs first (baby).
pahle pahar (H) The time between 1:00 am. and 4:00 a.m..
pair mandate hain (H) Making foot impressions, using wet colour, on the floor.
pairwa (M). Water from the amniotic sac.
pathari (H/M) The first draft of a horoscope for a baby created to check for negative influences.
peethee (H) Mixture of turmeric, flour and ghee, used for giving massage
pet (H). Belly, abdomen, stomach.
pet ki nari daba di (H) Pressing a meridian or a nerve on the abdomen.
phunkani (H) Do mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
pind, pindiya (H) A roti is broken, and this paste is made into an oblong shape.
pindi (M) Upper thigh, towards the back.
pipal (H) Banyan.
Raang ji jhaar (H) A kind of herb used for postpartum cleansing.
rabri (H) Thickened milk.
Raj Dai (H) Midwife employed by the government, paid a regular stipend, existing in Rajasthan until a few decades ago.
reth (H) Sand.
saans ki bimari (H) Asthma
sathiya mandate hain (H) The sathiya, a swastika, is drawn or made.
sauten (H) Co-wife—husband’s other wife.
savasini (H) The one who receives the offerings made to Bemata on Chatti day.
seera (H) Sweet pudding.
shakkar (H) . . Unrefined sugar, made from jaggery
siyale (M) Winter
sootak (M). Woman who has just given birth.
sooye (M) Pollution of childbirth, principle or power of ‘fertility’
taabar (M) Child.
teeta (M) Vagina
thaili (H) Amniotic sac. Literally, sac
thasla (H) Wide bowl.
tikki (H) Red bindi or large red circle. Originally, a line put on forehead for religious or ornamental purposes; tikki(R) means Ayurvedic herbs made into a tablet, which is also round shaped.
tilak (H) A red line put on the forehead for religious/ornamental purposes.
tillo ka tel (H) Sesame oil.
tota (M). Amulet.
uparla (M). Pneumonia.
viti (M) Dais use this to break the amniotic sac.
Rajasthan Workshop 2
accha waar (H) A good or appropriate day of the week
Bemata odo ghalyodi hain (M)  
Bhaironji (H) Village deity
bijli ke vansh ka (H) This term describes children conceived soon after their mothers have given birth to one child, without menstruating after that birth. See Muru child in Bihar 2. Literally, of the lineage of electrical current.
dhore (M) Sand dune.
dimaag (H) Brain
jaiphal (H) Nutmeg
jhopri (H) Hut
katran (M) Protecting a pregnant woman from the “shadow” of death.
kulhaadi (H) Axe
macha (M) Cot.
naal modte hain (H) Twisting the umbilical cord.
pahar (H) A period of 3 to 4 hours
paloti (H/M) Up side down
Peerha (H) Low stool
phoonk (H) Blowing air into the mouth
stan (H) Breast
stanpaan (H) Breastfeeding
Suraj Puja (H) Sun Worship. Done on 5th, 7th or 10th day after birth.
taaron ki chhaaon (H) Under the stars
Thali (H) Plate
thapthapate hain (H) Patting rhythmically and firmly
thikri (H) Lid of the earthen water pot
tind (M) Caul
Rajasthan Workshop 3
Bhayon (M) Sisters
loth (M)  
singhara (H) Water chestnut

 

(H)=Hindi, (K) =Kotha, (M)=Marwari, (P)=Punjabi


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